Abdominal and Pelvic Pains

Abdominal Pains: Abdominal pains, also known as abdominal pains and arising from the internal organs in the abdominal region, occur acutely or chronically. Abdominal pain in diseases such as gastritis, stomach ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux may be relieved by using antacids and eating. Although the causes of pain vary depending on the region described, referred pain can also affect the abdominal area.

Patients can generally reduce their abdominal pain by changing positions or applying pressure through coughing and sneezing movements. But what is really important here is to know the underlying pathology and plan the treatment accordingly.

What should be the emergency approach to a patient experiencing abdominal pain?

A patient complaining of abdominal pain may have pain originating from internal organs, or pain reflected from distant organs may also cause abdominal pain. The important thing here is to know acute abdominal conditions and to intervene quickly.

We can roughly divide the abdominal area anatomically into four quadrants by drawing imaginary lines from the belly button up, down and to the sides. Right upper quadrant pain guides the physician in terms of diagnosis of cholecystitis, right lower quadrant pain of appendicitis, left upper quadrant pain of pancreatitis, and left lower quadrant pain of diverticulitis. There may be situations that require urgent intervention in the approach to abdominal pain, which varies depending on anatomical localization. In this condition, also called acute abdomen, the patient complains of abdominal pain that was not present before and has become increasingly severe, especially in the last two days. Acute abdomen, which may lead to emergency surgical intervention, should be well recognized by the physician and necessary precautions should be taken.

How to Differentiate Superficial and Deep Abdominal Pain?

By taking a detailed anamnesis and performing a physical examination by the physician, the distinction between superficial and deep abdominal pain can be easily made. Generally, pain originating from the musculoskeletal system is superficial, while pain originating from internal organs is deep.

Chronic Lower Abdominal Pain

Chronic lower abdominal pain, caused by different reasons in men and women, affects life negatively, causes various movement restrictions and leads to loss of labor. When determining the location of abdominal pain, we divide the abdomen into four imaginary horizontal and vertical lines from the belly button. The area we describe as the lower abdomen is located below the belly button. Chronic lower abdominal pain is the general name for abdominal pain that persists for 6 months or longer. The causes of chronic lower abdominal pain in men and women vary widely. Due to the differences in female anatomy, if a woman suffers from lower abdominal pain, it is necessary to consider many pathologies at the same time. While it may be related to the menstrual cycle that occurs every month, sexual intercourse or drug use may also be one of the factors.

Adhesions in the membranes of internal organs in the abdominal area and infective diseases that are not treated properly after a previous surgical operation, endometriosis and ovarian-related diseases in women, causes related to the gastrointestinal system and kidney-related pain can be counted as causes of chronic pelvic pain.

So how should the approach be to a patient with chronic pelvic pain? It would not be right to give painkillers to the patient without first determining the pathology causing the pain. Because we may miss the underlying pathology. First, we must approach the patient with a good history and examination. Additionally, various laboratory tests will be useful. If the diagnosis is still not made after doing all these, a surgical method called laparoscopy is entered directly into the abdominal area and the diagnosis can be made after examination.

For abdominal pain caused by psychogenic factors, the most logical solution would be to direct patients to a good psychotherapy treatment.

Last Gut (Rectum) Cancer Pain

The rectum, that is, the hindgut, as the name suggests, is the last outlet connecting the large intestine to the anus. Food taken orally is stored in the rectum as feces after going through various digestion stages. The inner surface of the rectum, which has a structure of approximately 12-15 cm, consists of a mucosal part and contains glands that secrete mucus. In this way, stool passes more easily. Rectal cancer occurs as a result of abnormal cell structures in the rectal tissue. Initially, small polyps may be seen. Although most of these polyps are benign, sometimes there may be cells that cause malignancy, that is, cancer. This condition, called rectal cancer, is more common in men. This disease, which usually occurs after the 5th decade, can now be detected in advance with various screening tests.

Rectum Cancer Symptoms

The most obvious and visible symptom to patients; There is blood in the stool. Frequent complaints of constipation and diarrhea or abnormal movements of the intestine may be symptoms of rectal cancer. Extreme weight loss without any diet or exercise should also bring to mind the possibility of a malignancy in the rectum.

What are the Risk Factors for Rectum Cancer?

Although there is no clear cause, poor lifestyle, excessive alcohol and cigarette consumption, high-fat diet, obesity, diabetes and various chemotherapy treatments are among the important risk factors for rectal cancer. Also included are ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.

Rectum Cancer Treatment

If polyps detected in the early stages are benign, they can be easily removed during colonoscopy. The extent of cancer invasion and the rate of metastasis to surrounding tissues will be determined and the most appropriate treatment method will be selected by the physician.